## Introduction

When writing production code with furrr, you might not want to leave it up to automatic globals detection to ensure that everything is shipped off to the worker correctly. While it generally works well, there will always be edge cases with static code analysis that may cause it to either fail (very bad) or copy more objects over to the workers than is required (less bad, but still not great).

As an alternative, you can use the carrier package by Lionel Henry to manually isolate all of the dependencies required by your function. This ensures that the function’s environment contains only what you have requested, and nothing more. Combine this with furrr_options(globals = FALSE) to turn off automatic globals detection, and you should end up with a production worthy way to use furrr.

## Crates

The idea behind carrier is to package up a function and all of its dependencies into a crate. A crate is just another function, but with a specialized function environment that carries around only the dependencies required for it to run. To create a crate, directly wrap a call to function() with crate().

crt1 <- crate(function(x) {
stats::var(x)
})

crt1(c(1, 5, 3))
#> [1] 4

You can also specify the function to crate using the anonymous function shorthand with ~.

crt1_anon <- crate(~stats::var(.x))

crt1_anon(c(1, 5, 3))
#> [1] 4

You must manually namespace all package function calls with pkg::, as the crated function runs in an environment where only the base package has been loaded.

crt2 <- crate(function(x) {
var(x)
})

crt2(c(1, 5, 3))
#> Error in var(x): could not find function "var"

Any “outside” dependencies that you require must also be manually specified when creating the crate, otherwise it won’t be found.

constant <- 1.67

crt3 <- crate(~ .x + constant)

crt3(2:5)
#> Error in crt3(2:5): object 'constant' not found

You can specify these dependencies by either inlining them into the crate with !!, or by supplying them as name-value pairs to crate():

crt4 <- crate(function(x) {
x + !!constant
})

crt4(2:5)
#> [1] 3.67 4.67 5.67 6.67
crt5 <- crate(
constant = constant,
function(x) {
x + constant
}
)

crt5(2:5)
#> [1] 3.67 4.67 5.67 6.67

Crates have a nice print method, allowing you to see the size of the crate and what has been captured:

crt5
#> Registered S3 method overwritten by 'pryr':
#>   method      from
#>   print.bytes Rcpp
#> <crate> 10.1 kB
#> * function: 9.53 kB
#> * constant: 56 B
#> function(x) {
#>     x + constant
#>   }

One downside of inlining with !! is that it doesn’t show up as a separate element in the print method:

crt4
#> <crate> 9.61 kB
#> * function: 9.16 kB
#> function(x) {
#>   x + !!constant
#> }

The last thing to know about crates is that it is generally required that you crate a new function. By “new”, I mean that the function cannot have already been created beforehand and assigned a name, because this prevents crate() from assigning it the correct environment.

fn <- function(x) {
x
}

crate(fn)
#> Error: The function must be defined inside the crate() call

## Crates and furrr

Using a crated function with furrr is just like using any other function, except you won’t need to rely on the automatic globals detection (unless you have globals in .x or ... that need to be found, but this is somewhat rare).

As an example, when crt5() was created we also captured the constant dependency object in the function’s environment. Since furrr serializes .f alongside its environment, the dependencies come along for free without the need to auto detect them.

crt5
#> <crate> 10.1 kB
#> * function: 9.53 kB
#> * constant: 56 B
#> function(x) {
#>     x + constant
#>   }
plan(multisession, workers = 2)

opts <- furrr_options(globals = FALSE)

x <- list(1:10, 11:20)

future_map(x, crt5, .options = opts)
#> [[1]]
#>  [1]  2.67  3.67  4.67  5.67  6.67  7.67  8.67  9.67 10.67 11.67
#>
#> [[2]]
#>  [1] 12.67 13.67 14.67 15.67 16.67 17.67 18.67 19.67 20.67 21.67

If you crate a function with extra optional arguments, you can still pass those through using furrr:

median_doubled <- crate(function(x, na.rm = FALSE) {
stats::median(x, na.rm = na.rm) * 2
})
plan(multisession, workers = 2)

opts <- furrr_options(globals = FALSE)

x <- list(c(1, NA, 2), c(4, 5, NA))

future_map_dbl(x, median_doubled, na.rm = TRUE, .options = opts)
#> [1] 3 9

Crates are also a great way to avoid accidentally shipping unneeded dependencies. In the Common Gotchas article, we discuss the following example of accidentally shipping this big object to each worker, even though it isn’t required by the function itself. This function call should be extremely fast, but is significantly slower than expected because it has to serialize big.

my_slow_fn <- function() {
# Massive object - but we don't want it in .f
big <- 1:1e8 + 0L

future_map_int(1:5, ~.x)
}
plan(multisession, workers = 2)

system.time({
my_slow_fn()
})
#>    user  system elapsed
#>   7.540   2.715  16.167

One way to avoid this is to use carrier to crate the function, isolating it from the surrounding environment.

my_crated_fn <- function() {
# Massive object - but we don't want it in .f
big <- 1:1e8 + 0L

fn <- crate(~.x)
opts <- furrr_options(globals = FALSE)

future_map_int(1:5, fn, .options = opts)
}
plan(multisession, workers = 2)

system.time({
my_crated_fn()
})
#>    user  system elapsed
#>   1.575   1.678   3.910